Monthly Archives: September 2016

3 further types of cancer clinical trials

Medical research takes many forms and within the cancer research domain, treat there are a range of clinical trials taking place at any one time to help develop new drugs. Here we look at three further types of cancer clinical trials – prevention trials, trials that focus on causes and patterns, and sequential trials.

3-further-types-of-cancer-clinical-trials

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Prevention trials

Participants in prevention trials are helping to see if a specific drug or form of treatment can prevent a type of cancer from developing in the first place, rather than focussing on a cure. Therefore, those involved in the trial won’t have cancer, but they could come from a high risk group or just be part of the general population.

The IBIS 2 breast cancer trial is an example of such a prevention programme. This involved a large group of post-menopausal women who had a particularly high risk of developing breast cancer, to see if the drug anastrozole was beneficial in preventing the cancer developing. The results showed that those taking the drug were 53% less likely of developing the cancer than the participants that took the placebo.

Causes and patterns of cancer

Trials that investigate the possible causes or patterns of cancer are called epidemiology studies and the majority of these involve observational studies. These can be cohort studies where a group of people are followed for a length of time to see if they develop cancer, with the particular risk factors then being examined.

Case control studies assess those who already have the disease against those who don’t, to see if they were exposed to specific risks.

The other types of studies are cross-sectional, which are conducted over a short space of time and look at links between risk factors and those who have cancer.

Once trials have been completed, drugs have to be reviewed by the relevant body, such as the FDA, and there are companies to help with FDA 510k submissions such as fdathirdpartyreview.

Sequential trials

The other type of cancer trial is sequential. These are beneficial as they require fewer participants and results can be shown earlier, as they are worked out throughout the trial instead of just at the end. Participants are treated sequentially in a specific group, with each group given a different dose or in a different way to see which gives the best results.

Human growth hormone

human-growth-hormone

Hormones are the chemical messengers of the body that stimulate a tissue to put it into specific actions. There are many hormones secreted in our body and they are secreted by various glands. Further more the glands are also of two types- exocrine and endocrine glands. While the secretion of the exocrine gland is secreted outside the body for e.g. tear by lacrimal gland, seek saliva by salivary gland, viagra order etc., click endocrine gland secretion is secreted inside the blood directly which acts directly on the target organs. The endocrine glands in the body are pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal, testes, ovary and parathyroid gland. While the hormones of the glands are very essential for the normal functioning of the body, the secretion of the glands are controlled by the pituitary gland which is called as the master gland.

One of its secretions is the human growth hormone which is responsible for the growth of the body parts. Secretion of this hormone is maximum during the adolescence as it is time when the physical as well as mental development of an indignant takes place. After the body reaches a stage of full growth, its secretion starts declining. So now people have claimed that if this hormone is administered in the body in the form of injections, then it produces an anti-ageing effect and also build up muscles which enhance the appearance.

There are many products available in the markets which are a form of human growth hormone or somatotropin. HGH is being sold in the market by many brand names and you can read more about them at http://jintropin.us/. They are now being used by many people to grow their muscles in desired form and also produce anti-ageing effects. However the genuineness of the products should be cross checked properly. It should also be noted that genuine products are available in the forms of injections and not pills or sprays so any company that claims that they are selling the drug in the form of a pill or spray should be investigated properly.

Weight loss regimes

weight-loss-regimes

In the recent times, order due to our sedentary lifestyles, healing unhealthy eating habits and less physical work outs, we have to deal with a number of problems like lifestyle disorders and weight gain. If we manage our weight scientifically, then we will be able to manage many health related problems. We often try various remedies like joining a gym, changing our diets etc.

So the big questions is how to lose weight effectively and how should we start dieting.

If we manage to reduce the junk food and the excess carbs from our diet, then certainly we will be able to reduce our weight. However, most of the people do not take this seriously, they stat the regime seriously but often get distracted and get back to their older junk routines. It is actually little difficult to reduce the carbs, hence it is a big question as to how will we reduce our weight and what should we take for in between meals. The answer is that when we decide to reduce the carbohydrate intake, then we should replace the carbohydrate by proteins, which will satiate our hunger and contain essential nutrients for good health. There are MRP shakes available in the market that act as meal replacement shakes. They have the high protein content which is essential for development of lean muscles and also cuts the unnecessary fat intake. They also contain some good forms of carbs that release the energy throughout the day and thus keep you satiated. They are rich in essential amino acids and also contain the dietary fibres which are important for cleansing the gut.

Hence see that we have a good remedy for weight loss in the form of MRP shakes. Also working out is very important. Now when we think of cutting the carb and keeping ourselves hungry for entire day, we will end up harming our body because by staying hungry, we will not get the nutrients essential for keeping our body working.

Nifedipine tablets

nifedipine 30 mg tablets

What is Nifedipine and what is it used for?

Nifedipine is a specific drug used for the treatment of hypertension, as it belongs to the pharmacological class of calcium channel blockers. It has greater functionality on dilation of the arteries, compared to other calcium channel blockers. In fact, it is used for the short-term treatment for various types of angina (in particular in angina pectoris vasospastic or Prinzmetal’s angina)

The modified-release tablets have a hole performed in the compressed membrane with laser technology (OROS technology, osmotic pump used for oral sustained release): the hole allows the controlled and constant release of the active substance, producing benefits both in the treatment of hypertension and of angina pectoris.

Nifedipine, when administered orally, is absorbed by the body very rapidly and almost totally by the intestines, so sudden to guarantee a maximum plasma peak in 30/60 minutes. Although the absorption is very high, bioavailability is approximately around 50% considering the first passage effect characterized by the oxidation and the subsequent inactivation of the active substance. The biological active quota, acts on the surface of the smooth-muscle cells by inhibiting the activity of the active calcium channels. Those channels are responsible for the massive entrance of calcium in the intracellular environment, which is necessary to guarantee al the events that underlie the cell’s contraction.

The muscle relaxant action takes place on a fibro cellular level in the coronary arteries, while the cardiac and skeletal muscles aren’t involved in the process.

The biological action of Nifedipine does translate in vasodilation and decrease in peripheral resistances, with a subsequent reduction of the arterial pressure, the cardiac workload and the request of oxygen.

When the action of Nifedipine is ended, after 2-3 hours, the active substance is removed through the renal pathway.

What you have to know before taking Nifedipine

The administration of Nifedipine needs to be done with particular attention when the patient is following a medical therapy that includes the use of antihypertensive drugs or when the patient suffer from hypotension.

A monitoring of the glycemic levels is essential when Nifedipine is administered to diabetic patients, and in case of hyperglycaemia, is advisable to suspend the therapy.

Also, the dosage of Nifedipine needs to be reviewed when the patient suffer from hepatic impairment, considering the first passage effect which halve the biologically efficient dosage, while a suspension of the therapy needs to be done gradually in order to avoid rebounds.

Severe blood pressure losses, adaption reactions to the therapy (at his initial phase) and the individual sensitivity to Nifedipine, could make the usage of machineries dangerous as well as driving.

It’s important to note how the concomitant assumption of other drugs may alter Nifedipine’s pharmacological properties, so it’s highly advised to consult the specialist if the patients is following another medical treatment.

The side-effects of Nifedipine

The clinical trials shows a good tolerability of the product, with not-so-relevant and transitional adverse reactions.

The side-effects of Nifedipine may include:

  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Warmth sensation
  • Heartburn
  • Increased heart rate
  • Muscle cramp
  • Constipation
  • Cough
  • Sexual related issues

Suggested dosage for Nifedipine

For arterial hypertension and during the treatment of ischemic heart diseases and Raynaud’s syndrome, usually it’s advised to take one capsule for three times a day. Even though this is the suggested dosage for Nifedipine, the therapy is subjected to significant variations in terms of useful and effective dosage. For this reason, the dosage needs to be personalized by the specialist, based on the individual needs of the patient and on the severity of the ongoing disease.

The assumption of Nifedipine needs to be done on an empty stomach, because pharmacokinetic studies showed how food might increase the time required for the plasma peak to reach its maximum.

For more information on Nifedipine 30 mg OROS tablets consult valpharma.com website.